EVAP Canister Purge Solenoid is a small round or rectangular plastic or steel container mounted somewhere in the vehicle. It is usually hidden from view and may be located in a corner of the engine compartment or inside a rear quarter panel. The canister is filled with about a pound or two of activated charcoal. The charcoal acts like a sponge and absorbs and stores fuel vapors. The vapors are stored in the canister until the engine is started, is warm and is being driven.
The PCM (Powertrain Control Module) then opens the canister purge valve, which allows intake vacuum to siphon the fuel vapors into the engine. The charcoal canister is connected to the fuel tank via the tank vent line. Under normal circumstances, the EVAP canister causes few problems. Since the charcoal does not wear out, it should last the life of the vehicle.
Identify the trouble codes
The most common problem with the EVAP canister is a faulty purge control or vent solenoid. Applying vacuum directly to the purge valve with a hand-held vacuum pump can test vacuum-type purge valves. The valve should open and not leak vacuum if it is good. With solenoid-type purge valves, voltage can applied directly to the solenoid to see if the valve opens. The resistance of the solenoid can also be checked with an ohmmeter to see if it is open or shorted.
How can you replace it ?
The solenoid itself is a fairly easy replacement; pop the first solenoid off, and put in a new one. On some cars, the EVAP system can be difficult to access, but once you get it open you should have no problems. If the issue isn't with the purge valve, and is with the control module instead, you won't be able to replace it on your own. Take a look at the system; if you're worried you will damage the hoses trying to get the solenoid off, or you can't properly diagnose the problem, take it to a professional.
The EVAP system, from the canister to the purge valve, is hooked directly to your engine. This means that if there's a major problem with it, your engine could be sending out a lot of gas fumes. While this doesn't affect your ability to drive right away, it does affect your fuel efficiency and can cause engine problems later on. So if you see the P0443 error code, try to take care of it as soon as possible.
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These problems result mainly from poor combustion, which stifles the engine.
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